Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. In rope dyeing, beaming is done twice. These groups do permit women to wear underpants as long as they are hidden.
Soon, the popularity of denim jeans began to spread rapidly and Davis was overwhelmed with requests. He soon sold pairs to workers in need of heavy work clothing. Nevertheless, because of the production capacity in his small shop, Davis was struggling to keep up with the demand. Davis's proposal was to patent the design of the rivet-reinforced denim pant, with Davis listed as inventor, in exchange for certain rights of manufacture. All denim goes through generally the same process to creation.
Dry or raw denim contrasted with "washed denim" is denim that is not washed after having been dyed during production. Over time dry denim will fade, considered fashionable in some circumstances. During the process of wear, fading will usually occur on those parts of the article that receive the most stress. On a pair of jeans, this includes the upper thighs, the ankles, and the areas behind the knees.
After being made into an article of clothing, most denim articles are washed to make them softer and to reduce or eliminate shrinkage which could cause the article to not fit properly after its owner washes it. This process is known as sanforization. In addition to being sanforized, "washed denim" is sometimes artificially distressed to produce a "worn" look.
Much of the appeal of artificially distressed denim is that it resembles dry denim which has faded. In jeans made from dry denim, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears them and by the activities of their daily life. This process creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a look more "natural" than artificially distressed denim.
To facilitate the natural distressing process, some wearers of dry denim will abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months. In particular, the United States, Zimbabwe and Japan are popular sources of cotton for making raw denim.
Dry denim also varies in weight, typically measured by the weight of a yard of denim in ounces. Heavier denim is much more rigid and resistant to wear, but can also take a larger number of wears to break in and feel comfortable.
Patterns of fading in jeans caused by prolonged periods of wearing them without washing are a way of "personalizing" the garment. Selvedge or selvage is the edge of a fabric as it comes from the loom. Selvedges are woven or knit so that they will not fray, ravel, or curl.
Selvedge denim refers to a unique type of selvedge that is made by passing one continuous cross-yarn the weft back and forth through the vertical warp beams. This is traditionally finished at both edges with a contrasting warp most commonly red ; that is why this type of denim is sometimes referred to as "red selvedge.
Shuttle looms weave a narrower inch fabric, which is on average half the width of modern shuttleless Sulzer looms. Consequently, a longer piece of fabric is required to make a pair of jeans from selvedge denim approximately three yards.
To maximize yield, most jeans are made from wide denim and have a straight outseam that utilizes the full width of the fabric, including the edges. Selvedge denim has come to be associated with premium quality jeans, which show the finished edges from the loom rather than the overlocked edges that are shown on other jeans.
Denim was originally dyed with a dye produced from the plant Indigofera tinctoria , but most denim today is dyed with synthetic indigo dye. In both cases, the yarn undergoes a repeated sequence of dipping and oxidation — the more dips, the stronger the color of the indigo. Rope dyeing is considered the best yarn-dyeing method, as it eliminates shading across the fabric width. In rope dyeing, beaming is done twice. Denim fabric dyeing is divided into two categories: Indigo dyeing produces the traditional blue color or shades similar to it.
Sulfur dyeing produces speciality black colors and other colors, such as red, pink, purple, grey, rust, mustard, and green. Skinny jeans made from red denim. Stretch denim incorporates an elastic component , such as spandex. This creates a certain amount of "give" in garments made from stretch denim. However, this feature will shorten the wearing life of the garment.
Starting with the model year, American Motors Corporation AMC offered a regular production option consisting of a Levi's interior trim package. Although the car's jean material looks just like the real thing, AMC used spun nylon that was made to imitate denim.
This was because real denim fabric is not tough enough for automobile use and cannot pass fire resistance safety standards. The copper rivets were the actual versions and the seat design included traditional contrasting stitching with the Levi's tab on both the front seat backs.
The option also included unique door panels with Levis trim and removable map pockets, as well as "Levi's" decal identification on the front fenders. This consisted of denim-like vinyl upholstery and a matching canvas top. Between and Volkswagen produced the Jeans Beetle , which had all-denim trim. They also repeated this concept in some later models. At this time, the Iranian People such as Scythians , Sarmatians , Sogdians and Bactrians among others, along with Armenians and Eastern and Central Asian peoples such as the Xiongnu and Hunnu , are known to have worn trousers.
Republican Rome viewed the draped clothing of Greek and Minoan Cretan culture as an emblem of civilisation and disdained trousers as the mark of barbarians. Feminalia and Braccae both began use as military garments, spreading to civilian dress later, and were eventually made in a variety of materials including leather, wool, cotton and silk.
Trousers of various designs were worn throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, especially by men. Loose-fitting trousers were worn in Byzantium under long tunics ,  and were worn by many tribes, such as the Germanic tribes that migrated to Western Roman Empire in the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages , as evidenced by both artistic sources and such relics as the 4th-century costumes recovered from the Thorsberg peat bog see illustration.
By the 8th century there is evidence of the wearing in Europe of two layers of trousers, especially among upper-class males. Over the drawers were worn trousers of wool or linen, which in the 10th century began to be referred to as breeches in many places. Tightness of fit and length of leg varied by period, class, and geography. Open legged trousers can be seen on the Norman soldiers of the Bayeux Tapestry. Although Charlemagne — is recorded to have habitually worn trousers, donning the Byzantine tunic only for ceremonial occasions,   the influence of the Roman past and the example of Byzantium led to the increasing use of long tunics by men, hiding most of the trousers from view and eventually rendering them an undergarment for many.
As undergarments, these trousers became briefer or longer as the length of the various medieval outer garments changed, and were met by, and usually attached to, another garment variously called hose or stockings.
In the 14th century it became common among the men of the noble and knightly classes to connect the hose directly to their pourpoints  the padded under jacket worn with armoured breastplates that would later evolve into the doublet rather than to their drawers. In the 15th century, rising hemlines led to ever briefer drawers  until they were dispensed with altogether by the most fashionable elites who joined their skin-tight hose back into trousers.
Men's clothes in Hungary in the 15th century consisted of a shirt and trousers as underwear, and a dolman worn over them, as well as a short fur-lined or sheepskin coat. Hungarians generally wore simple trousers, only their colour being unusual; the dolman covered the greater part of the trousers.
Around the turn of the 16th century it became conventional to separate hose into two pieces, one from the waist to the crotch which fastened around the top of the legs, called trunk hose, and the other running beneath it to the foot. The trunk hose soon reached down the thigh to fasten below the knee and were now usually called " breeches " to distinguish them from the lower-leg coverings still called hose or, sometimes stockings.
By the end of the 16th century, the codpiece had also been incorporated into breeches which featured a fly or fall front opening.
As a modernisation measure, Tsar Peter the Great of Russia issued a decree in commanding every Russian man, other than clergy and peasant farmers, to wear trousers. During the French Revolution of and following, male citizens of France adopted a working-class costume including ankle-length trousers, or pantaloons named from a Commedia dell'Arte character named Pantalone  in place of the aristocratic knee-breeches culottes. The new garment of the revolutionaries differed from that of the ancien regime upper classes in three ways:.
Pantaloons became fashionable in early 19th-century England and the Regency era. The style was introduced by Beau Brummell    and by mid-century had supplanted breeches as fashionable street-wear.
Breeches proper survived into the 20th century as court dress , and also in baggy mid- calf or three-quarter length versions known as plus-fours or knickers worn for active sports and by young schoolboys. Types of breeches are still worn today by baseball and American football players, and by equestrians.
Sailors may [ original research? In the 17th and 18th centuries, sailors wore baggy trousers known as galligaskins. Sailors also pioneered the wearing of jeans - trousers made of denim. Starting around the midth century, Wigan pit-brow girls scandalised Victorian society by wearing trousers for their work at the local coal mines. They wore skirts over their trousers and rolled them up to their waists to keep them out of the way.
Although pit-brow lasses worked above ground at the pit-head, their task of sorting and shovelling coal involved hard manual labour, so wearing the usual long skirts of the time would have greatly hindered their movements.
The Korean word for trousers, baji originally pajibaji first appears in recorded history around the turn of the 15th century, but pants may have been in use by Korean society for some time.
From at least this time pants were worn by both sexes in Korea. Men wore trousers either as outer garments or beneath skirts, while it was unusual for adult women to wear their pants termed sokgot without a covering skirt. As in Europe, a wide variety of styles came to define regions, time periods and age and gender groups, from the unlined gouei to the padded sombaji. In Western society, it was Eastern culture that inspired French designer Paul Poiret — to be one of the first to design pants for women.
In , Poiret created loose-fitting, wide-leg trousers for women called harem pants, which were based on the costumes of the popular opera Sheherazade. In the early 20th century women air pilots and other working women often wore trousers. Frequent photographs from the s of actresses Marlene Dietrich and Katharine Hepburn in trousers helped make trousers acceptable for women.
During World War II , women working in factories and doing other forms of "men's work" on war service wore trousers when the work demanded it. In the post-war era, trousers became acceptable casual wear for gardening, the beach, and other leisurely pursuits.
Further, in Britain during World War II, because of the rationing of clothing, many women took to wearing their husbands' civilian clothes, including their trousers, to work while their husbands were away from home serving in the armed forces. This was partly because they were seen as practical workwear and partly to allow women to keep their clothing allowance for other uses. As this practice of wearing trousers became more widespread and as the men's clothing wore out, replacements were needed.
By the summer of , it was reported that sales of women's trousers were five times more than they had been in the previous year. In , Luisa Capetillo challenged mainstream society by becoming the first woman in Puerto Rico to wear trousers in public. Capetillo was sent to jail for what was then considered to be a crime, but, the judge later dropped the charges against her.
In the s, André Courrèges introduced long trousers for women as a fashion item, leading to the era of the pantsuit and designer jeans and the gradual erosion of social prohibitions against girls and women wearing trousers in schools, the workplace and in fine restaurants. Pat Nixon was the first American First Lady to wear trousers in public. In , California state senator Rebecca Morgan became the first woman to wear trousers in a US state senate. Hillary Clinton was the first woman to wear trousers in an official American First Lady portrait.
In Rome in , a year-old driving instructor was accused of rape. When he picked up an year-old girl for her first driving lesson, he allegedly raped her for an hour, then told her that if she was to tell anyone he would kill her.
Later that night she told her parents and her parents agreed to help her press charges. While the alleged rapist was convicted and sentenced, the Italian Supreme Court overturned the conviction in because the victim wore tight jeans.
It was argued that she must have necessarily have had to help her attacker remove her jeans, thus making the act consensual "because the victim wore very, very tight jeans, she had to help him remove them An Alibi for Rape. As of at least 20 U. Wearing jeans on this day has become an international symbol of protest. As of the Italian Supreme Court has overturned their findings, and there is no longer a "denim" defense to the charge of rape.
Women were not allowed to wear trousers on the US Senate floor until In Malawi women were not legally allowed to wear trousers under President Kamuzu Banda 's rule until Since the International Skating Union has allowed women to wear trousers instead of skirts in competition. In the Royal Canadian Mounted Police began to allow women to wear trousers and boots with all their formal uniforms.
In and , some Mormon women participated in "Wear Pants to Church Day", in which they wore trousers to church instead of the customary dresses to encourage gender equality within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In , Turkey's parliament ended a ban on women lawmakers wearing trousers in its assembly. Also in , an old bylaw requiring women in Paris, France to ask permission from city authorities before "dressing as men", including wearing trousers with exceptions for those "holding a bicycle handlebar or the reins of a horse" was declared officially revoked by France's Women's Rights Minister, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem.
In , an Indian family court in Mumbai ruled that a husband objecting to his wife wearing a kurta and jeans and forcing her to wear a sari amounts to cruelty inflicted by the husband and can be a ground to seek divorce. In , The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that its female employees could wear "professional pantsuits and dress slacks" while at work; dresses and skirts had previously been required. Pleats just below the waistband on the front typify many styles of formal and casual trousers, including suit trousers and khakis.
There may be one, two, three, or no pleats, which may face either direction. When the pleats open towards the pockets they are called reverse pleats typical of most trousers today and when they open toward the fly they are known as forward pleats.
Trouser-makers can finish the legs by hemming the bottom to prevent fraying. A fly is a covering over an opening join concealing the mechanism, such as a zipper , velcro or buttons, used to join the opening. In trousers, this is most commonly an opening covering the groin , which makes the pants easier to put on or take off. The opening also allows men to urinate without lowering their trousers. Trousers have varied historically in whether or not they have a fly. Originally, hose did not cover the area between the legs.
This was instead covered by a doublet or by a codpiece. When breeches were worn, during the Regency period for example, they were fall-fronted or broad fall. Later, after trousers pantaloons were invented, the fly-front split fall emerged.
Most flies now use a zipper, though button-fly pants continue to be available. At present, most trousers are held up through the assistance of a belt which is passed through the belt loops on the waistband of the trousers.
However, this was traditionally a style acceptable only for casual trousers and work trousers; suit trousers and formal trousers were suspended by the use of braces suspenders in American English attached to buttons located on the interior or exterior of the waistband.
Today, this remains the preferred method of trouser support amongst adherents of classical British tailoring. Many men claim this method is more effective and more comfortable because it requires no cinching of the waist or periodic adjustment. In modern Western society, males customarily wear trousers and not skirts or dresses. There are exceptions, however, such as the ceremonial Scottish kilt and Greek fustanella , as well as robes or robe-like clothing such as the cassocks of clergy and the academic robes, both rarely worn today in daily use.
See also Men's skirts. Based on Deuteronomy in the Bible "The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man" , some groups, including the Amish, Hutterites, some Mennonites, some Baptists, a few Church of Christ groups, and most Orthodox Jews, believe that women should not wear trousers, but only skirts and dresses.
These groups do permit women to wear underpants as long as they are hidden. By contrast, many Muslim sects approve of pants as they are considered more modest than any skirt that is shorter than ankle length. However, some mosques require ankle length trousers for both Muslims and non-Muslims on the premises. Among certain groups, low-rise, baggy trousers exposing underwear became fashionable ; for example, among skaters and in s hip hop fashion. This fashion is called sagging or, alternatively, "busting slack.
Cut-offs are homemade shorts made by cutting the legs off trousers, usually after holes have been worn in fabric around the knees. This extends the useful life of the trousers. The remaining leg fabric may be hemmed or left to fray after being cut.
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